# Character table

In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra, a **character table** is a two-dimensional table whose rows correspond to irreducible representations, and whose columns correspond to conjugacy classes of group elements. The entries consist of characters, the traces of the matrices representing group elements of the column's class in the given row's group representation. In chemistry, crystallography, and spectroscopy, character tables of point groups are used to classify *e.g.* molecular vibrations according to their symmetry, and to predict whether a transition between two states is forbidden for symmetry reasons. Many university level textbooks on physical chemistry, quantum chemistry, spectroscopy and inorganic chemistry devote a chapter to the use of symmetry group character tables.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}

Here is the character table of *C*_{3} = *<u>*, the cyclic group with three elements and generator *u*:

where ω is a primitive third root of unity. The character table for general cyclic groups is (a scalar multiple of) the DFT matrix.

where (12) represents conjugacy class consisting of (12),(13),(23), and (123) represents conjugacy class consisting of (123),(132). To learn more about character table of symmetric groups, see .

The first row of the character table always consists of 1s, and corresponds to the **trivial representation** (the 1-dimensional representation consisting of 1×1 matrices containing the entry 1). Further, the character table is always square because (1) irreducible characters are pairwise orthogonal, and (2) no other non-trivial class function is orthogonal to every character. (A class function is one that is constant on conjugacy classes.) This is tied to the important fact that the irreducible representations of a finite group *G* are in bijection with its conjugacy classes. This bijection also follows by showing that the class sums form a basis for the center of the group algebra of *G*, which has dimension equal to the number of irreducible representations of *G*.

The space of complex-valued class functions of a finite group *G* has a natural inner-product:

Complex conjugation acts on the character table: since the complex conjugate of a representation is again a representation, the same is true for characters, and thus a character that takes on non-trivial complex values has a conjugate character.

Certain properties of the group *G* can be deduced from its character table:

The character table does not in general determine the group up to isomorphism: for example, the quaternion group *Q* and the dihedral group of 8 elements (*D*_{4}) have the same character table. Brauer asked whether the character table, together with the knowledge of how the powers of elements of its conjugacy classes are distributed, determines a finite group up to isomorphism. In 1964, this was answered in the negative by E. C. Dade.

This relation can be used both ways: given an outer automorphism, one can produce new representations (if the representation is not equal on conjugacy classes that are interchanged by the outer automorphism), and conversely, one can restrict possible outer automorphisms based on the character table.